Problem description: Compare the difference between a vacuum distillation
tower and an atmospheric distillation tower. Point out the main difference
between fuel-type vacuum tower and lubricating oil-type vacuum tower.
Question answer: The difference between a vacuum distillation tower and an atmospheric distillation tower is that the top pressure is different. The top pressure of the atmospheric tower is generally 0.9-1.5 atmospheres, while the pressure at the top of the vacuum tower is generally only a few thousand fears. Generally, it is firstly distilled in an atmospheric column, and the heavy components at the top of the column are then distilled in a vacuum column. In appearance, the decompression tower is very thick, with a small lower part and a large upper part.
The main task of fuel-type vacuum tower is to provide raw materials for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The quality requirements for cracking raw materials are mainly to have the residual carbon value as low as possible, that is, the content of gum and asphaltenes should be small, so as to avoid excessive coking on the catalyst; at the same time, it is also required to control the content of heavy metals, especially the content of nickel and vanadium. Reduce the pollution to the catalyst. As for the requirement of fraction composition, it is not strict.
The lubricating oil-type vacuum tower provides lubricating oil for the subsequent processing. The quality of its fractionation effect directly affects the subsequent processing and the quality of lubricating oil products. From the perspective of the distillation process itself, the quality requirements for the lubricating oil are mainly suitable viscosity, low residual carbon value, and good chroma. To a certain extent, it also requires a narrow distillation range.
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