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1. The esterification reaction is a reversible reaction. In order to increase the yield of esters, the reaction must be made as far as possible to facilitate the formation of esters. Generally, one of the reactants acid and alcohol is made in excess. In industrial production, which excess is better depends on the availability of raw materials, whether they are cheap, and whether they are easy to recycle. In the laboratory, an excess of ethanol is generally used. The mass fraction of ethanol should be high. It would be better if the ethanol with a mass fraction of 95% could be replaced by absolute ethanol. The amount of concentrated sulfuric acid used in the catalysis is very small. Generally, the catalysis can be completed as long as the mass of sulfuric acid reaches 3% of the mass of ethanol. However, in order to remove the water generated in the reaction, the amount of concentrated sulfuric acid should be slightly larger.
2. When preparing ethyl acetate, the reaction temperature should not be too high. Keep it between 60°C and 70°C. When the temperature is too high, impurities such as ether, sulfurous acid or ethylene will be produced. After the liquid is heated to boiling, it should be heated with a small fire. A few pieces of broken porcelain can be added to the test tube in advance to prevent the liquid from bumping.
3. Do not extend the airway into the Na2CO3 solution to prevent the Na2CO3 solution from being poured into the test tube of the heated reactant due to uneven heating. In addition, ethanol and acetic acid are very soluble in water, which can cause back suction.
4. Concentrated sulfuric acid is used as both a catalyst and a water absorbing agent.
5. The role of Na2CO3 solution is:
Ethyl Acetate Production Process
⑴ The function of saturated sodium carbonate solution is to condense the ester vapor, reduce the solubility of the ester in water (facilitate layering), remove the acetic acid mixed in ethyl acetate, and dissolve the ethanol mixed in ethyl acetate.
⑵Na2CO3 can react with volatilized acetic acid to produce odorless sodium acetate, which is convenient to smell the scent of ethyl acetate.
6. In order to facilitate the formation of ethyl acetate, the following measures can be taken:
⑴ When preparing ethyl acetate, the reaction temperature should not be too high.
⑵It is best to use glacial acetic acid and absolute ethanol. At the same time, excessive ethanol is used.
⑶ The amount of concentrated sulfuric acid used for catalysis is very small, but in order to remove the water generated in the reaction, the amount of concentrated sulfuric acid is slightly more than that of ethanol.
⑷Use inorganic salt Na2CO3 solution to absorb the volatilized acetic acid.
7. The reason why Na2CO3 cannot be used with alkali (NaOH): Although it can also absorb acetic acid and ethanol, the alkali will catalyze the complete hydrolysis of ethyl acetate, causing the experiment to fail.
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